Pharmacology and Toxicology Course Descriptions


Human Gross Anatomy/Neuroanatomy (2 Units)                                                  PCO 211

Basie Anatomy: Basic organization of the human body: a study of human biological structure at various levels of complexity: from sub cellular to gross and microscopic structure of individual organ systems. Structure function correlations are emphasized: Integumentary system, Circulatory system, lymphoid system, Alimentary system, musculoskeletal system, Respiratory system, Urinary system, Genital system, Endocrine system, system, Organs of special sense.

Neuroanatomy: Basic structural organization of the nervous system: The neuron (Soma and neuritis) Centralization and Telensphalization; Neural Circuitry (Receptors, cffectors and the synapse), Spinal cord and brain vesicles, fate of the Neural Crest. Spinal Cord: General Topography; Grey matter; Ascending and Descending pathways. Brain: General Topography: Brainstem; Cerebellum; Diencephalons: Cerebrum. Meninges and Ventricular system: Pia, Arachnoids Barrier. Peripheral Nervous System: Basic plan; Afferent and Efferent cerebrospinal peripheral nerve endings, Ganglia. Autonomic Nervous system: Basic plan; Sympathetic system; Parasympathetic system; Autonomic effcctor endings.

Human Genetic Anatomy/Histology (2Units)                                                         PCO 212

General Embryology: – male gamete, female, female, fertilization (gametogenesis), development of early embryo and developmental malformations. Systemic embryology – musculoskeletal system, respiratory system, cardiovascular system, nervous system, urogenital system, and developmental malformations. Genetic anatomy – genetic apparatus, and genetically related malformations. Influence of drugs on development. Histology: Histology of the tissues; the lymphatic system; alimentary system; the cxocrine glands. Histology of the urinary glands; the reproductive system; Organs of special senses

Introduction to Human Physiology I (2 Units)                                                       PCO 213

Excitable cells, contractile tissues. Cardiovascular and Respiratory Physiology: Cardiovascular physiology: Cardiac muscle, E.C.G. Hemodynamics, systemic Circulation, Events in Cardiac cycle, Heart rate and its control, Blood Pressure, Cardiac output. Respiratory Physiology: Introduction to Mechanics of respiration, Lung Carbon dioxide transport, carbon dioxide dissociation curve, Nervous regulation of respiration, Chemoreceptors, Hypoxia, hyperpnoca, Apnoca; Renal system.

Introduction to Human Physiology Il (2Units)                                                       PCO 214

Endocrinology and Reproduction: Introduction and Gastrointestinal Physiology: Introduction: Mastication, deglutation; Salivation, Stomach and its emptying, Small intestine, Large intestine, Salivary, Gastric and Pancreatic juices, Reflexes, Digestion, Absorption and Pancreatic juices, Reflexes, Digestion, Absorption and Assimilation, Bile. Gastrointestinal physiology: Introduction Mastication, deglutation; Salivation, Stomach and its emptying, small intestine, Large intestine, Salivary, Gastric and Pancreatic juices, Reflexes, Digestion, Absorption and Assimilation.

General features, Thyroid: Parathyroid and calcium Metabolism, Pituitary, Adenohypophysis, Neurohypophysis, Adrenal Cortex and Medulla. Pancreas, Thymus, Pincal Gland, Male and Female Reproductive systems. Special Senses: Eyeball, retina, sight, accommodation, Photochemical mechanism, receptor potential, light reflexes, adaptation, Ear, Sound waves, Hearing, Taste, Smell.

Neurophysiology and Special Senses: Organization of the NS and CNS control systems, Spinal reflexes, Excitation, Inhibition. Localization of functions in the cortex, Motor system, Pyramidal and Extra pyramidal Sensory system, Reticular formation, Cerebellum, Control of posture, Neurobiology rhythms, sleep and unconscious states, Memory, Learning, Autonomic Nervous System: Parasympathetic and sympathetic neuroeffectors, Cholinergic mechanisms, Adrenergic mechanisms, Autonomic reflexes, Adrenal medulla, autonomic drugs.


General Principles of Physiology (2 units)                                                              PCO 215

Introduction and history of physiology, cells and organelles, transport across cell membranes, homcostasis and control system, compartments, electrolytes. Body fluids, blood and its composition, crythropocisis, homeostasis, antigenicity, immunity and reticuloendothelial system. Blood grouping and transfusion, hematological indices and their measurements.

General Practical Human Physiology (1Unit)                                                        PCO 216

Special excrcises to illustrate various aspects of theoretical classes on physiology above. Experiments to demonstrate the various physiological functions using isolated tissues, whole animals, man, urine and blood analysis: Determination of blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate and effects of exercise and drugs on them; Experiments on urinalysis (pH, colour, protein, ketonc, sugar, specific gravity); Experiments on blood and blood chemistry (blood group, microscopy, blood count, hacmatocrit, packed cell volume, hemoglobin content); Evaluation of renal function; effects of drug on urine flow.

Practical Human Anatomy/Histology (1Unit).                                                        PCO 217

This will involve the use of plastic models and slides for histology and class demonstrations.  Experiments 1: Identification of muscular system, front view                                                                Experiment 2: Identification of muscular system, back view                                                             Experiment 3: Identification of the human parts using the human plastic model                                          Experiment 4: Slides for human histology I                                                                                      Experiment 5: Slides for human histology II                                                                                            Other relevant experiments

Principles of Pharmacology (2 units)                                                                       PCO 351

(i) Sources of drugs, (ii) Dosage forms and routes of administration, (iii) Mechanism of drug action: Combined effect of drugs, Factors modifying drug action, Tolerance and Dependence, Pharmacogenetics. (iv) Principles of Basic and Clinical pharmacokinctics: Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion of drugs, Adverse Drug Reactions and treatment of poisoning, ADME drug interactions (v) Bioassay of Drugs and Biological Standardization

Pharmacology of Peripheral Nervous & GIT Systems (2 units)                           PCO 353

Neurohumoral transmission (autonomic and Somatic), (ii) Ganglionic, stimulants and blocking agents (iii) Parasympathomimetics & Parasympatholytics, (iv) Sympathomimetics & Adrenergic Receptor and neuron blocking agents (v) Neuromuscular blocking Agents. Local anaesthetic Agents. Pharmacology of GIT System (i) Ulcer-Antacids, Anti Secretory and Anti-ulcer drugs, (ii) Laxatives and anti-diarrhocal drugs, (iii) Appetite Stimulants and Suppressants (iv) Emetics and anti-emctics, (v) Miscellaneous-Carminatives, demulcents, protectives, adsorbents, astringents, digestants, enzymes and mucolytics.


Pharmacology of Cardiovascular and Central Nervous System (3Units)            PCO 352

Pharmacology of Cardiovascular System: (i) Digitalis and cardiac glycosides, (ii) Antihypertensive drugs, (iii) Antianginal and Vasodilator drugs, including calcium channel blockers and beta adrenergic antagonists, (iii) Antiarrhythmic drugs, (iv) Antihyperlipcdemic drugs, (v) Drugs used in the therapy of shock. Drugs acting on the Haemopoietic System: (i) Haematinics, (ii) Anticoagulants, Vitamin K and hemostatic agents, (ii) Fibrinolytic and anti-platelet drugs, (iv) Blood and plasma volume expanders. Drugs acting on urinary systcm: i) Fluid and clectrolyte balance, diuretics. (3 units) Pharmacology of Central Nervous System: (1) Neurohumoral transmission in the C.N.S. (ii) General Anacsthetics, (iii) Alcohols and disulfiram, (iv) Scdatives, hypnotics, Anti-anxiety agents and Centrally acting muscle relaxants (v) Psychopharmacological agents (anti- psychotics) antidepressants, antimaniacs, and hallucinogens. Pathobiological aspects &drug therapy of schizophrenia, mania, and Alzheimer disease. (vi) Anti-epileptics drugs (vii) Anti-Parkinsonian Drugs, (viii) C.N.S. stimulants (ix) Drug Addiction and Drug Abuse. Analgesics, Antipyretics, Anti-inflammatory and Anti-gout drugs: (i) Opiod/Narcotic analgesics and antagonists (ii) Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory agents

Practical Pharmacology I(1 unit)                                                                             PCO 354

Experiments with intestinal smooth muscles, other tissues, biological assays and intact organisms.

Chemotherapy (2 units)                                                                                            PCO 451

(1) General Principles of Chemotherapy (ii) The pharmacology of the following drugs, Sulphonamids, Bcta lactam antibiotics (penicillin. cephalosporins, carbapenems, and monobactams), Tetracylines, Chloramphenicol, Aminoglycosides, Quinolone (iii) Pharmacology of ellaneous antimicrobial agents- Macrolides, Polymyxins, asamides. Metronidazole, Bacitracin, (iv) Antifungal agents (v) Chemotherapy of tuberculosis and leprosy. (vi) Anti-protozoal-Malaria- Life cycle and chemotherapy of malaria: Current trend in malaria treatment, Antimalarial drug resistance, schistosomiasis, Antiamocbiasis, drugs used against Trichomoniasis, Gardiasis, Trypanosomiasis Leishamaniasis, (vi) Anthielmintics, (vii) Antiviral agents & HIV/AIDS- HAART regimen (1x) Typhoid fever and Treatment of typhoid fever, (x) Neoplasia and Antincoplastic agents

Pharmacology of Endocrine and Respiratory Systems (2 units)                          PCO 452

Pharmacology of Endocrine System: (0) Hypothalamic and pituitary hormones, (ii) Thyroid hormones and antithyroid drugs, parathormone, calcitonin and Vitamin D, (iii) Diabetes-Oral hypoglycaemic agents, Insulin & glucagon, (iv) ACTH and corticosteroids, (v) Androgens and anabolic steroids, (vi) Estrogens, progesterone and oral contraceptives, (vii) Drugs acting on the uterus. Respiratory Pharmacology: Respiratory physiology, (ii) Respiratory stimulants, (iii) (iv) Anti-tussive and expectorants, (v) Anti-asthmatic drugs (vi) Drugs used in bronchitis and pneumonia.

Practical Pharmacology II (1 unit)                                                                          PCO 453

Experiments with intact preparations

Screening Methods in Pharmacology (2 units)                                                       PCO 551

Introduction to qualitative and quantitative pharmacological screening in drug development (ii) Common sources of error and avoidance of bias in Pharmacological screening, (ii) Controls in Pharmacological screening, (iii) Pharmacological Screening of putative drug substances for the following activities: Analgesics, Anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, antidiarroheal. antihypertensive, anticonvulsants, diuretics, antidiabetic, (iv) Application of Cell and tissue culture in drug screening, (v) Interpretation of Pharmacological experimental data, (vi) Toxicological evaluation of a new drug- Acute, sub-acute, chronic, and special toxicity studies. Statistical calculations of LD50 ED50 and data comparison (student t-Test). (vii) Discovery and development of new drugs, Clinical trial Postmarketing surveillance of drugs

Toxicology: General Principles of Toxicology (2 units)                                         PCO 553

(1) Definition of poison, general principles of treatment of poisoning with particular reference to barbiturates, opioids, organophosphorous and atropine poisoning, (ii) Heavy metals and heavy metal antagonists, (iii) Toxicity testing, (iv) Organotoxicity -ocular toxicity, nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity, (v) Adverse drug interactions and generic components in clinical practice. Agricultural, environmental and industrial toxicology: (i) Principles of antidotal treatment, (ii) Carcinogenesis and teratogenesis

Veterinary Pharmacy and Agrochemicals (2 units)                                               PCO 552

(1) Definitions of agrochemicals and veterinary pharmacy, (ii) Veterinary dosage forms,                                (iii) Compounding and Dispensing of medicines to animal, (iv) Compliance of animals with medications; (v) Poisons in animal feeding stuffs; (vi) Therapeutic substances in animal feeding stuffs; (vii) Poisoning with carbon tetrachloride, phenothiazines, insecticides, Toxic plants. (viii) Treatment of Sheep and goat disease; (ix) Treatment of poultry Disease, (x) Treatment of Swine Disease, (xi) Treatment of small animal (Dogs and Cats disease), (xii) Antimicrobial agents used in treating animals infections.