DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACEUTICAL MICROBIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
Introduction to Biochemistry (3Units) PMB 205
Introduction to Molecular Biology: Nucleic acids – DNA, RNA and elementary treatment of their structure. Biochemistry of heredity. Discovery and properties of the genetic materials, DNA replication and cell division. Cloning and recombinant DNA Technology, Mutagens and mutation. Mechanism of protein synthesis.
Lipid chemistry, digestion, and metabolism including phospholipids and prostaglandins; lipidoses, Haemoglobin degradation and other important biochemical transformation of medical importance. Protein caloric malnutrition. Metabolism of amino acids; amino acid degradation and biosynthesis.
Metabolism: Introduction to the study of intermediary metabolism. Membranes and cell structure techniques used in biochemistry and medicine. Carbohydrate chemistry, digestion, absorption, metabolism and glycolysis. Biochemistry of hormone and hormonal action to include actions of cyclic-AMP, cyclic-GMP, adrenaline, glycagon and insulin. Detoxification mechanisms including cytochrome P450 and other isoforms. Importance of biochemistry to the health sciences – levels of medical care and biochemistry. Protein structure and function-primary, secondary and tertiary structure in blood, digestion, absorption and transport across membranes; Essential and non essential amino acids. Ketogenic and glucogenic amino acids.
Practical Introductory Biochemistry (1Unit) PMB 202
Special exercises to illustrate various aspects of theoretical classes on biochemistry above, including: identification of carbohydrates- general tests (Molisch and Anthrone tests); specific tests (monosaccharides- Fehling and Benedict tests; polysaccharides – Iodine test). Identification of amino acids and proteins: qualitative determination of amino acids using indicator paper; identification of amino acids using Ninhydrin reagent; qualitative determination of proteins using Biuret test. Identification of fats (lipids); Libermann-Burchad test; Sudan III test. pH determination and buffer solutions; determination of pH by indicator method and pH meter method; determination of the pKa of a weak acid using pH meter.
Introductory Pharmaceutical Microbiology (2 Units) PMB 281
Introduction to Pharmaceutical Microbiology: Historical development of microbiology and the effects o health. General structure of the bacterial cell; the bacterial spore, its structure and resistance to inactivating agents. Systematic classification of bacteria and characteristics of major groups – Taxonomy, Protoplasts, spheroplast and L-Forms. Nutritional requirements and growth of microorganisms. Cultivation and isolation methods for microorganisms. Bacterial culture media and evolution of pure culture technique. Diagnostic techniques in relation to culture determination Bacteria growth in culture and respective phases including death. Formation of colonics, metabolism in microbial systems, Stains and staining reactions. Enumeration of microorganisms, Fungi and moulds; their importance in pharmacy and medicine. The Richettstia, Chlamydia, Viruses (including HIV/AIDS) and viral replication. Introductory parasitology. Protozoal parasites of public health importance. Genetics (introductory) – viruses and systematics.
Practical Introductory Pharmaceutical Microbiology (1Unit) PMB 283
This involves laboratory exposure for the handling, identification and growing of microorganisms. Experiments will demonstrate the techniques and principles discussed in the theory course and include: Microscopy Staining Techniques, Cultivation, Isolation and Identification of Bacteria and Isolation, Characterization & Identification of Fungi, and stool analysis and microscopic examination of intestinal parasites.
Antimicrobial Pharmaceutical products (2 Units) PMB 381
Clinical overview of drugs for Gram positive and negative bacterial infections, Classification of antimicrobial agents with special reference to mechanism of action and chemical structures: Drugs inhibiting cell-wall synthesis – beta-lactam antibiotics. Inhibitors of protein synthesis – aminoglycosides, macrolides, tetracyclines, Drugs which interfere with cell membrane integrity. Inhibitors of RNA and DNA Synthesis-rifamycins and quinolones, Miscellaneous antimicrobials e.g. sulphonamides, trimethoprin fusidic acid, clindamycin, lincomycin, chloramphenicol. Antifungal Agents. Antiviral agents including Interferon and Interferon Inducers. Chemotherapy of some parasitic infections. Chemical disinfectants, preservatives and antiseptics.
Practical antimicrobial agents Evaluation (1 Unit) PMB 383
Experiments will cover the areas covered in the theory classes and includes: Evaluation of antibiotic, disinfectants, antiseptics and preservatives. Exercises designed to demonstrate the conditions and methods for the sterility of the sterile products.
Sterile Products Technology (3 Units) PMB 382
Principles and Techniques of Sterilization; Aseptic Techniques; Sources of Microbial Contamination in Industries, Communities and Hospitals; Sterile Pharmaceutical Products.
Production and storage of Water for Pharmaceutical Use (WPU), the quality of water to use for specific applications, such as drinking water, the manufacture of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) and dosage forms, and Good manufacturing practice (GMP) regarding the design, installation and operation of pharmaceutical water systems. Quality determination using microbiological techniques. Pyrogens and pyrogen testing. Evaluation of microbial contents of pharmaceutical preparations and products. General principle of spoilage and preservation against biodegradation. Principles of preservation of multiphase systems. In- process Microbiological Controls; Quality Assurance of finished products; limiting number of viable organisms.
Practical Sterile Products Technology (1 Unit) PMB 384
Experiments to cover topics covered in the theory classes including (but not limited to exercises designed to illustrate the basic procedures in preparation of some sterile products such as water for injections, small volume drug solutions for injections; Large volume solutions for intravenous infusion (I.V. fluids), eye drops, eye lotions and bacterial vaccines. An outline of the experiments is: aseptic processing, sterilization techniques, sterile product preparation and dispensing, sterility testing, pyrogen testing, sources of microbial contamination, and microbial enumeration and the estimation of bioburden of pharmaceutical products.
Evaluation of antimicrobial agents (2 Units) PMB 481
Properties of an ideal antimicrobial agent. In vitro methods of evaluating Disinfectants, Antiseptics, Preservatives, Antibiotics including the phenol coefficient tests, Kelsey-Sykes and improved Kelsey-Sykes tests, Microbial Challenge Tests, MIC, MBC; evaluation of antimicrobial interactions. Principles and applications of antibiotic bioassay; culture and sensitivity test.
Advanced Practical Antimicrobial agents evaluations (1 Unit) PMB 483
Experiments to cover evaluation of antimicrobial drug/agents such as evaluation of antiviral agents, antifungal agents, antiparasitic agents including antimalarials etc.
Basic Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and immunology (3 Units) PMB 482
Basic techniques in biotechnology-cutting and joining of DNA molecules, cloning techniques, construction of RNA structure, screening methods, DNA analysis, mutagenesis, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Clinical importance of recombinant proteins e.g. human insulin, growth hormones, interferon.
Pharmaceutical immunology including but not limited to Engineering antibodies for therapy – production of monoclonal antibodies, recombinant antibodies and antibody fragment. Gene Therapy. Biotechnology in vaccines development – DNA vaccines, vaccine production by recombinant DNA for prevention of viral and bacterial infections.
Identification of potential biotechnological products; plants and transgenic animals as potential sources of recombinant biotechnological products; characterization of expressed proteins; an overview of biotechnological products in current use.
Practical Introductory Pharmaceutical Biotechnology (1 Unit) PMB 484
Experiments will cover the areas covered in the theory classes and includes: Genetic transfer of antibiotic resistance plasmid; plasmid curing; isolation, characterization and quantification of bacteria DNA, demonstration of malaria in thin/thick stained blood films; and serological test for typhoid and paratyphoid fever. Formulation of bacterial vaccines.
Clinical Applications of Pharmaceutical Microbiology (2 Units) PMB 581
Infectious Diseases (including viral and prion diseases) and Pathogenesis, mechanisms of infections, host-parasite relationship, transmission of infections, human pathogenic bacteria, identification and infection patterns of Gram negative and Gram positive organisms, urinary tract, GIT and respiratory tract infections. Nosocomial and community acquired infections and their control/management with emphasis on the pharmacist’s role. Current drug therapies for AIDS and its associated opportunistic infections; the psychological aspects of HIV pharmaceutical services will be discussed with emphasis on the role of the pharmacist as HIV/AIDS counselor/educator; Veterinary Parasites and Control Systems.
Pharmaceutical Biotechnology (3 Units) PMB 582
Bacterial Genetics. Development of resistance to antibiotics and non- antibiotics by microorganisms. Control of emergence of resistance. Biotechnological Products manufacturing process including cell banking systems, stabilization and formulation into final products. Fundamentals of Industrial Fermentation. Use of Microorganisms in Biotechnology. Search for Cultures. Approaches in Strain Development Genetic/Enzymatic engineering techniques. Selective Isolation of Mutants. Maintenance and Preservation. Media development and processing. Fermentation and product recovery. Primary and Secondary Metabolites. Production of some pharmaceutically important products such as organic acids, organic solvents, plasma substitutes, antibiotics, vitamins, steroids, amino acids and hormones via fermentation. Clinical trials, registration, intellectual property and patent rights of biotechnological products. Biotechnological manufacturing facility and environment-general layout, environmental requirements and associated quality assurance (QA) in production, Biosafety. Biotechnological products and Pharmaceutical Care-an overview of relevant information service to patients on storage, reconstitution, stability, antigenicity, self-administration.