DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACEUTICS AND PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY
Pharmaceutical Calculations (2Unit) PTE 203
Metric system, common system and conversions. Percentage preparation, dilution and concentration. proportional calculations and alligation; Calculations involving very small quantities. Reducing and enlarging formulas. Molarity, Normality, equivalent weights. Isotonic solutions. Electrolyte solutions and concept of milliequivalent. Posology- calculation of doses. Calculations involving radioisotopes. Buffers and buffered solutions.
Introduction to Pharmaceutics (3Units) PTE 242
Fundamental Operations in weighing: Errors in using dispensing balances; minimum weighable amounts and weighing techniques; conical and beaker shaped measures for dispensing liquids; errors in measurements and measuring technique. Household measures and weighing of small amounts of materials. Ethics of Dispensing and Presentation of Products: General dispensing procedure; The prescription; information given on the labels of dispensed medicines. Presentation of information on labels; Additional labels. Types of Pharmaceutical Preparations: Solutions, mixtures, linctuses, syrups, elixirs, oral liquids, emulsions, applications, lotions, gargles, creams, ointments, gels.
Types of Pharmaceutical Preparations: Suppositories, pessaries, mouth washes, nasal and ear drops. Divided and bulk powders, granules, cachets, capsules and tablets, etc.
Pharmaceutical solution and Solubility: factors affecting solubility and rate of dissolution of drugs; Solution of liquids; The distribution of solutes between immiscible liquids and applications of the distributions law in pharmacy; Colligative properties of solutions. pH and buffer solutions. Phase equilibra: The phase rule systems of one and two components and applications in pharmacy, e.g., eutectic mixture and sublimation (freeze) drying.
Practical Pharmaceutics Dispensing (1 Unit) PTE 244
Laboratory experiments covering the topics discussed and the dispensing of the several dosage forms covered in the theory class. These include: Basic dispensing tools and operations; liquid preparations (solutions, mixtures/suspensions etc); semi-solid preparations (creams, ointments, gels, pastes etc); and solid preparations (suppositories, powder and granules, cachets, capsules, tablets).
Physical Pharmaceutics (3Units) PTE 341
Adsorption: The mechanism of adsorption: The Langmuir and B.E.T. isotherms, chemisorption; factors affecting the amount absorbed; application of adsorption in pharmacy.
Surface and Interfacial Phenomena: Surface tension: contact angle and the wetting of solids, spreading of one liquid over another, mechanism of capillary rise and affect of temperature, method of determining surface tension. Surface active agents and their classification: pharmaceutical applications and medicinal importance of surface active agents.
Bulk Properties of Surfactant Solutions: micelle formation and methods for the determination of the critical micelle concentration (C.M.C); factors affecting micelles; stability of micelles. Solubilization: factors affecting solubilization, preparation of lyophobic solutions; stability of lyophobic colloids.
Rheology: Newtonian fluids: flow characteristic of Newtonian fluids and effect of temperature, determination of viscosity – principles of capillary tube; Redwood and falling sphere viscometers; rotational viscometers; the flow properties of disperse system and viscosity coefficients of colloidal dispersions, viscosity imparting agents in pharmacy; non-Newtonian fluids; plastic, pseudoplastic and dilatants flows; thixotropic systems; Mechanism of fluid flow; significance of Reynolds number; distribution of velocities across a tube and boundary layers.
Preformulation studies. Dispersed systems: Suspensions: factors affecting the preparation of a physically stable suspension flocculated and deflocculated systems; caking and resuspension; sedimentation, behavior of flocculated and deflocculated suspensions; pharmaceutical applications of suspensions; colouring agents used in the formulation of suspensions. Emulsions and emulsification: types of emulsion and testing of emulsion types; theories of emulsions (Bancroft’s Harkins oriented wedge and the complex film theories); emulsifying agents and their classification; methods available for the preparation of emulsions; preservation and stability of emulsions; concept of hydrophile-lipophile-balance (HLB); formation emulsions by HLB methods; methods for determining HLB numbers; semisolid emulsions. Creams-types and preparations. Ointments-types of ointment bases and methods of preparation. Pastes-their bases and method of preparation. Jellies and Poultices-Kaolin Doullics P.C. Gels: The structure and properties of gels; application of gels in pharmacy. Suppositories and Pessaries: methods of their preparation, shapes and sizes properties of an ideal suppository base; types of suppository bases; general methods of preparation of suppositories and their packaging. Solutions as dosage forms. Role of surfactants in formulations and stability of solutions.
Unit Operations (2 Units) PTE 342
Filtration: factors affecting filtration; mechanism of filtration; filter media and aids; filtration equipments (continuous rotary vacuum filter, the filter press and the edge filters). Mechanism of fluid flow, flow through pipes, Reynolds number and its significance
Centrifugation: principles of centrifugation; laboratory and large scale centrifuges.
Evaporation and Drying: Heat transfer to boiling liquids, mathematical representation of heat transfer. Effect of active constituents of solution, classification and types of evaporation. Moisture content, loss on drying, constant and falling rate periods, drying equipment, freeze dryers as examples of non-thermal dryers and reasons for drying.
Milling and Mixing: Application of size reduction in drug formulations, factors affecting milling. Milling equipment. Types of mixers, segregation of powder and the efficiency of mixers.
Extraction: Classes and types of extraction, extraction methods. Large scale extraction and classes of extracts.
Practical Physical Pharmaceutics (1Unit) PTE 343
Experiments to cover the areas covered in the theory classes. These include: Phase rule; densities of liquids and solids; surface tension measurement; viscosity measurement; diffusion; aggregate behavior of surface active agents; volumetric and spectrophotometric determination of drug concentration; adsorption; drug partitioning; preparation of colloids; coacervation; partitioning of drugs between equilibrium liquids and coacervate phases.
Practical Unit Operations & Disperse Systems (1 Unit) PTE 344
Experiments to cover the areas covered in the theory classes. These include: Preparation of suspensions by precipitation, particle reduction, and flocculation by use of electrolytes; evaluation of suspension quality by sedimentation volume and viscosity measurements; formulation of emulsions and determination of emulsion type by dye dissolution method; formulation of creams by fusion method and evaluation by thermal stress; formulation of ointments and evaluation of their quality.
Effect of filter area, thickness of filter medium and concentration of suspension on filtration rate; evaporation; moisture uptake by pharmaceutical powders; milling; mixing.
Tablet and Capsule Technology (2 Units) PTE 441
Size classification: Particle shape and sieving and sifting; determination of particle size. Flow properties of Powder: Methods for the determination of angle of repose; factors affecting the angle of repose; flow of powders through tubes and holes; cohesive pharmaceutical powders; experimental methods used for measuring the “cohesiveness” of powder beds; factors affecting the tensile strength of powder e.g. effect of particle shape and size; moisture; glidants and temperature.
Granulation and Tablet Technology: Reasons for and methods of granulation; essential granule properties. Tablet manufacture; types of compressed tablets; formulation of tablets; principles of the operation of single punch and multiple (rotary) punch tablet machines; problems encountered during tablet manufacture and ways to remedy them. Solid dosage coating: types of coating materials and methods – pan, sugar, film and enteric coatings; requirement for core tablets and coating of granules; fluidized – bed and compression coating. Capsules: Hard gelatin capsules materials for capsules; methods of capsule production; capsule filling, equipment and operations: formulation and finishing of capsules; soft gelatin capsules; nature of the soft gelatin shells and the capsule content.
Dosage Form Evaluation and Drug Stability: Standard for tablets and capsules: Shape, weight, content of medicaments, diameter, crushing strength (hardness) and friability of tablets and capsules. Formation factors affecting the dissolution rates of solid dosage form. Liquids: Labeling and packaging, description, contents, appearance (colour, clarity, etc), pH, weight per ml, refractive index, etc.
Semi-solids: Labeling and packaging, description, contents, appearance weight per ml. Tablets and Capsules: Labeling and packaging, description, content, appearance, disintegration and dissolution tests. In-vitro dissolution tests for solid dosage forms: Natural convention-Non-sink methods such as solvometer, hanging pellet, and static disc methods, forced convention-non-sink methods such as wrub, beaker, oscillation tube rotating disc, sounder & ellanbogen methods, and forced convention-sink methods (adsorption, partition, dialysis and column methods, continuous flow through system, computerized automated systems.
Practical Tablet and Capsule Technology (1 Unit) PTE 443
Experiments to cover topics covered in the theory classes. These include: Determination of fundamental and derived properties of powders; granulation of powders and determination of granules’ properties (micromeritics and flow); preparation of tablets by wet granulation and direct compression; study of the effects of excipients on tablet properties; quality control tests on tablets (weight uniformity, hardness, friability, disintegration time, content of active ingredient, content uniformity); dissolution test; quality control test on capsules; effect of polymer film on the release profile of drug from compression coated tablets, effect of storage conditions on the stability of pharmaceuticals.
Advanced Dispensing (2 unit) PTE 444
Ethics and dispensing. Management of patient’s choices and preferences Necessary precautions to ensure ethical dispensing operations. General legal requirements for dispensing of medications and devices. Good dispensing practice: the dispensing environment, pharmacist, process and patient counselling. Validity of prescriptions. Parts and types of prescriptions; interpretation and review of prescriptions, interaction with prescribers and pharmacist’s interventions on prescriptions. Patient and address verification. Dispensing errors, types and checks. Packaging, repackaging and storage requirements for various products. Dispensing aids and software. Reference information sources. Dispensing-related disputes and crises: managing pressures from patients and prescribers. Conditions necessitating refusal to dispense prescriptions. Pharmacoeconomics, psycosocial aspect of dispensing and management of returned medications. Generic dispensing and brand substitution. Brand disputes. Refill requests and detection/management of addiction. Dispensing of controlled drugs and poisons. Extemporaneous preparations: their relevance, types of dosage forms, general requirements for their formulation. Quality assurance in extemporaneous dispensing. Important extemporaneous dispensing mishaps. Patients with special needs, e.g. Dementia. Role of language and other forms of communication.
Advanced Practical Dispensing (1 unit) PTE 446
Students will be made to appreciate the professional requirements in actual practice in the hospital and community pharmacy e.g. drug interaction and patient counseling. Students will be oriented to dispensing ethical preparations in the hospital, appraisal of prescription and prescription patterns. There will be revisions of basic dispensing in the laboratory. The student will further be exposed to formulation of various types of dosage forms with emphasis on the proper use of the drug products. It will involve the compounding and dispensing of bulk and divided powders, disperse systems especially cream, lotions and pastes, including preparation of chlorine solutions (0.5 and 0.05% w/v) and total parenteral nutrition. Detection of unusual doses of drug preparations, as well as potential incompatibilities in preparations and Patients counseling in dispensing will be emphasized.
Novel Drug Delivery Systems and Drug Stability Studies (3 units) PTE 541
Advances in drug delivery systems including liposomes, niosomes, bilosomes and polymeric nanoparticles; biotechnological methods for delivery of genes, vaccines and therapeutic proteins. Targeted drug delivery. Drug Stability: Incompatibilities in liquid dosage forms; chemical degradation of pharmaceutical products (hydrolysis, oxidation, isomerization, polymerization, decarboxylation and adsorption of carbon dioxide); physical factors influencing chemical degradation (temperature, moisture, light and radiation): factors influencing and methods of reducing chemical degradation; physical degradation of pharmaceutical products e.g. loss of volatile constituents, loss of water, absorption of water, crystal growth, polymorphic changes and colour changes. Microbiological degradations. Accelerated stability testing. Packaging Materials- general principles.
Industrial Pharmacy and Process Validation (2 Units) PTE 542
Formulation and production of medicines. Present state of Pharmaceutical industry in Nigeria, systematic development of Pharmaceutical industry including primary and auxiliary industries. Materials of construction, plat design, infrastructural facilities, building specifications. Production management. Current Good manufacturing Pracices. cGMP: General introduction with glossary of terms: general inspection, quality assurance and quality control procedures and sampling. Personnel and training building and environmental hygiene, planning formula and manufacturing instructions. Handling of starting materials, packaging materials, intermediate products, standard and batch packaging and labeling instruction, control of packaging material and packing operations, supervision of production, storage, transport and distribution. Manufacture and control of sterile medicinal products including premises processing environment, aseptic area and equipment. Cross contamination etc. Necessity and procedure for Drug recall.
Potential and unexplored raw material in Nigeria for Pharmaceutical industry: pilot plant, scale up technologies for tablets, capsules, semi-solids, etc. Formulation of herbal medicines into dosage forms, standardization, stability studies, microbiological evaluation and standardization of doses.