Clincal Pharmacy Course Descriptions


Introduction to Pharmacy Practice (2 Units)          PCL 201

Pharmacy and primary health care delivery; Pharmacist in the health services; Drug and society, first aid/hygiene.

Various disciplines of the Pharmaceutical Sciences; Opportunities in pharmacy; History of pharmacy; evolution of the profession of pharmacy; development of pharmacy education in Nigeria. Evolution of the PharmD globally and locally. Stages in the development of a new drug. Product – oriented versus patient – oriented practice. Concept of dosage forms and drug prescriptions.

Pharmacokinetics and Biopharmaceutics (2 Units)           PCL362

Definition of terminology and symbols used in pharmacokinetics. Fate of a drug after administration. Physical significance of drug concentration in the blood; Biological factors in drug absorption. Physicochemical factors affecting drug absorption; Dosage form consideration in gastrointestinal absorption; Drug –drug and drug – food interactions, bioavailability and bioequivalence with emphasis on product registration with regulatory bodies. Compartment models: Single and Multiple compartment models. Drug clearance. Hepatic elimination of drugs. Intravenous infusions. Multiple dosage regimens. Prolonged action dosage form administration. Non-linear pharmacokinetics. Relationship between pharmacokinetics parameters and pharmacologic response. Calculation of various pharmacokinetic parameters. Applications of Pharmacokinetic principles in developing patients’ care plan with emphasize on those drugs with narrow therapeutic index.

Introduction to Pharmacy Administration & Pharmacy Management (3 Units)                                                                                                                                                            PCL371

Managerial Skills: Definitions of management and administration; Management process; Importance of management in pharmacy business (customers/patients/public relationship, retail competition, selling and promotion in hospital and community pharmacies); Industrial pharmaceutical organization (medical and sales representative), Marketing concept, functions, marketing mix and communication, product growth, (salesmanship); Advertising and sales promotion; Personnel management (leadership, recruitment, remuneration, negotiation, staff training, evaluation, motivation and management).

Starting & Managing a Pharmacy Enterprise: Pharmacy financing and administration (sources and limitations of funds, choosing between new pharmacy and buying existing one, purchasing part-time interest in existing pharmacy) and healthcare financing (government and donor finance, revolving funds, etc)


Pathology for Pharmacy students (2 Units)                                                            PCL461

The normal cell. The adopted cell. Cell injury and cell death. Inflammation and repair. Neoplasia and its clinical aspects. Systemic of immunity. Systemic diseases: Diabetes mellitus, Iron storage disorders, Gout and urate deposits in the kidneys. Fluid and haemodynamic derangements. Infectious disease. Deficiency disease: protein-calorie malnutrition, vitamins and minerals deficiency. Blood vessels and the heart. Lymph nodes and spleen. All systems, skin, liver, gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, breast and biliary tract.

Introduction to Clinical and Public Health Pharmacy (2 Units)                           PCL462

Introduction to clinical pharmacy. Principles of clinical pharmacy. Clinical pharmacy in the tropics. Pharmacy in primary health care and the clinical roles of the pharmacist in different practice setting. Clinical pharmacy concepts and practice. Interprofessional relationships. Use of medical terms and abbreviations. Laboratory values and interpretations as related to disease states. General principles of psychology, medical sociology, role of psychology in healthcare delivery, management of aggression and stress, psychological factors in anxiety, depression and psychosomatic illness, etc. Application of psychological approach in providing an effective pharmaceutical care for the management and prevention of drug abuse and dependence, and other illnesses.

The introduction to Public health part will cover an overview of pharmacy and public health (definition of public health, prevention and public health, implication for pharmacists), applied epidemiology for pharmacists, disease prevention and health promotion, environmental and occupation health, behavioural health, public health services in Nigeria, evaluation and outcome assessment in pharmacy practice, health care financing in Nigeria and NHIS, principles of pharmacoeconomics.

Pharmacy Ethics & Jurisprudence (3 Units)                                                          PCL471

Ethics of pharmacy profession in Nigeria; history of pharmacy in Nigeria. Laws related to the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC), National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA), Nigerian Natural Medicines Development Agency (NNMDA), Standard Organization of Nigeria (SON), Pharmacists Council of Nigeria (PCN), WHO/FAO Codex Allimentarium Commission, United Nations Narcotic Commission, Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA), etc. Food, Drug and Cosmetics Laws including regulation, inspection, registration, advertising, manufacture, sale/distribution; Poison, Dangerous Drugs and Pharmacy Acts; Essential Drugs List (EDL), Fake and Counterfeit Drug laws; Consumer Protection Council law; All other relevant laws related to the practice of pharmacy including those of the pharmacists Disciplinary Committee and Assessors rules, pharmacists registration rule, Dispensing of Drugs, Patent and Proprietary Medicines, etc. Legislation and animal health products, National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) and other health policies, and National Drug Policy. Prescribing rights of health professionals.

Supply Chain Management of Pharmaceuticals and other Health Commodities (3 Units)                                                                                                                                           PCL464

This course will cover introduction to health commodities supply chain, introduction to standard operating procedures manual for the SCM facilities and staff in the SCM of health commodities, introduction to logistic management information system, introduction to maximum-minimum inventory control systems, adjusting the pipeling in the max-min systems and assessing stock status, storage of health commodities, assessing health commodities, supply planning and shipment scheduling, monitoring and supervision of logistics systems.

Pathophysiology & Pharmacotherapeutics (3 Units)                                             PCL561

This course emphasizes the application of the knowledge of the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, epidemiology, diagnosis, biopharmaceutics and pharmaceutical care to develop skills in planning the rational therapeutic and non-drug therapy of selected diseases. Case studies and WHO/other standard indicators prescribing guidelines are employed as approaches to developing the ideas of rational drug therapy, monitoring drug therapy and interactions.

Areas to be covered will include cardiovascular disorders (HBP, CHF), psychiatry/neurology (Epilepsy, Schizophrenia), Hematology / oncology/ infectious diseases (including Cancer, Leukaemia, HIV/AIDS), pediatrics and geriatric drug therapy,

Drug therapy in pregnancy and clinical toxicology; fluid and electrolyte imbalance, pulmonary systems (Asthma), gastroenterology (PUD), endocrinology (DM), rheumatology, medical emergencies and critical care therapeutics including treatment of poisoning and adverse drug reactions. Total Parenteral nutrition in emergencies (shock and gastrointestinal obstruction), Essential and non essential amino acids. Formulation of essential parenteral nutrition, and principles of nutrigenomics.

Clinical Pharmacy Clerkship I (4 Units)                                                                 PCL 564

This practical course is designed to provide the opportunity for the student to have direct patient contact and associated pharmacy experiences. The course is constructed to enable the student to assimilate and apply his/her previously acquired pharmaceutical knowledge in a patient care environment. In addition, the student will progressively develop clinical pharmacy communication skills emphasizing empathy, education and ethics through interactions with as variety of patients on specific-drug related problems and medical diseases. Improve professional communication and interpersonal relationship with other health care providers through ongoing interactions related to patient care issues and develop students to become pharmacists with good-problem solving skills and professional judgment. Clerkship in hospitals should be conducted in such a way that the student is trained to achieve the following outcomes: Patients receive the maximum benefit from drug therapy. Effective drug management of sub-acute care of patients in hospitals including trauma, post-surgical, asthma exacerbation, oncology, and end-of-life care. Appropriate selection of drugs and monitoring of drug therapy. Cost-containment initiatives in patient care. Pharmaceutical care provision in multiple-practice environments. Educational services on drug-related issues to other health care practitioners, pharmacy students and residents, patients and the community. Drug information services to clinicians, patients and the community. Play key roles in the development of disease specific drug-treatment guidelines.

Areas where students will be posted to will include hospital and community pharmacy practice. Activities will cover history taking, medication records review, patient education and counseling, drug therapy monitoring, interventions and counter prescribing, health promotion, disease prevention and responding to symptoms. The students will be rotated through different sites including teaching and specialist hospitals, community pharmacies, and primary health care centers. In consultation with hospital authorities, students will participate in each rotation under the instruction of a preceptor (registered pharmacist resident in the site) who will be assisted by Faculty clinical instructor. In hospitals, students will also participate in consultants ward rounds and be involved in drug decision-making process in the care of in-patients, in consultation with the medical consultants. Each student will make an oral case presentation and submit a written report at the end of each rotation.

Drug Administration, Patient Medication Assessment and Literature Evaluation (2 units)                                                                                                                                          PCL 562

The course will involve taking of patient history and physical examination techniques, medical terminologies, biochemical and pathological test methods, and interpretation with relevance to therapeutics, compilation and uses of patient medication records, eye and ear preparations and medications through the use of inhalers and nebulizers. At the end of the course, the student should be able to obtain medical histories, screen patients for common medical problems, measure and evaluate vital signs, detect adverse drug reactions, recommend interventions and management of adverse drug reactions, monitor patient therapies. Students will also be able to administer drugs effectively as appropriate.

Drug Information: A study of the methods and resources available for the rapid and efficient handling of factual drug information and its effective utilization in the promotion of safe, effective and rational drug therapy; Resources needed for the establishment of a drug information center and the provision of drug information service; Development of the hospital formulary system and essential drugs list and publication of drug information bulletin; Health informatics; electronic medical records; Internet and Pharmacy practice: evaluation of information from the Internet, Internet prescription.

Communication Skills: Appearance as a mode of communication; the various styles of listening and response; application of the various styles of listening and response to patient interview and education (pharmacist-patient relationship); factors affecting patient compliance with drug regimen; Pharmacist’s relationship with other health care professionals.

Pharmacy Management and Administration (2 Units)                                          PCL 571

Finance and Record Keeping: Financing business venture; costing and pricing products/services; financial analysis and control (record-keeping systems, financial statements and their analysis, and budgeting and cash flow. Research & Development: Consultancy and research services; product design, development and presentation; launching of new products/services.

Industrial pharmaceutical organization (medical and sales representative), Marketing (concept, functions, marketing mix and communication, product growth, (salesmanship); Advertising and sales promotion; Personnel management (leadership, recruitment, remuneration, negotiation, staff training, evaluation, motivation and management). Entrepreneurial Development: Generating and developing business ideas; conducting market surveys; preparing a business plan; selecting an appropriate technology for the business.

Introduction to entrepreneurship and new venture creation; Entrepreneurship in theory and practice; The opportunity, Forms of business, Staffing, Marketing and the new venture; Determining capital requirements, Raising capital; Financial planning and management; Starting a new business, Feasibility studies; Innovation; Legal Issues; Insurance and environmental considerations. Possible business opportunities in Nigeria.